Wiki software is a type of collaborative software that runs a wiki system. This typically allows web pages to be created and edited using a common web browser. It is usually implemented as an application server that runs on one or more web servers. The content is stored in a file system, and changes to the content are stored in a relational database management system.
The first such system was created by Ward Cunningham in 1995 Template:Fact, but given the relative simplicity of the wiki concept, a large number of implementations now exist, ranging from very simple "hacks" implementing only core functionality to highly sophisticated content management systems. The primary difference between wikis and more complex types of content management systems is that wiki software tends to focus on the content, at the expense of the more powerful control over layout seen in CMS software like Drupal, WebGUI, and Joomla! or at the expense of non-wiki features (news articles, blogs,..) like those in TikiWiki CMS/Groupware (which is a Wiki-CMS hybrid).
"Wiki software" could be taken as comprising all of the software required to run a wiki, which might include a web server such as Apache, in addition to the Wiki engine itself, which implements the wiki technology. In some cases, such as ProjectForum, or some WikiServers, the web server and wiki engine are bundled together as one self-contained system, which can often make them easier to install.
The majority of engines are open source/free software, often available under the GNU General Public License (GPL); large engines such as TWiki, TikiWiki CMS/Groupware and the Wikipedia engine, MediaWiki, are developed collaboratively. Many wikis are highly modular, providing APIs which allow programmers to develop new features without requiring them to be familiar with the entire codebase.
It is hard to determine which wiki engines are the most popular, although a list of lead candidates include TWiki, MoinMoin, PmWiki, DokuWiki and MediaWiki (Google trend history comparison). TWiki and Atlassian Confluence are popular on intranets. TikiWiki CMS/Groupware is a popular Wiki-CMS hybrid. A list of some of those available is included below, and another can be found at Wiki:WikiEngines.
- Main article: Personal wiki
Some wiki applications are not intended for collaborative work, but for personal information organizing or content management. These applications are often referred to as Desktop Wikis or Personal Wikis.
Mobile wiki software is an extension of web-based wikis optimized for mobile devices, especially mobile phones. It provides the same basic functionalities of web-based wikis. The main difference is that it allows offline editing and reading of content, with an Over The Air (OTA) synchronization of the changes when a wireless connection becomes available.
- List of wiki software
- Comparison of wiki software - feature-table comparison of common wiki software
- List of collaborative software
- Comparison of wiki farms - servers that provide hosting for wiki websites
- List of wikis - websites using wiki software, organized by topic
- WikiMatrix: Comparing Multiple Wiki Engines Side-by-Side
- Comparison of different wiki software (Article, November 2004)
- How to choose a Wiki
- Extensive list of wiki software
- Wikitext standard — Meta discussion on a proposed standard wikitext format
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